Problem Solving Frameworks. 1-Hour Guide by Anil Nathoo.Problem Solving Frameworks. 1-Hour Guide by Anil Nathoo.

Problem Solving

Problem-solving is a cognitive process that involves identifying, analyzing, and resolving issues or challenges to achieve a desired outcome. It’s a fundamental skill in both personal and professional life. Effective problem-solving typically follows a series of steps:

  1. Identify the Problem: Clearly define and understand the problem or challenge. This step involves gathering information and considering different perspectives.
  2. Analyze the Problem: Break the problem down into smaller components or sub-problems. Examine the causes and effects of the issue. This step may involve data analysis, research, or brainstorming.
  3. Generate Solutions: Brainstorm and list potential solutions or approaches to address the problem. Encourage creative thinking and consider various options.
  4. Evaluate Solutions: Assess the pros and cons of each solution. Consider feasibility, costs, risks, and potential benefits. This step helps you select the most viable solution.
  5. Choose a Solution: Based on the evaluation, select the best solution that is most likely to resolve the problem effectively and efficiently.
  6. Implement the Solution: Put the chosen solution into action. Develop a plan and allocate resources as needed.
  7. Monitor Progress: Continuously track the implementation of the solution. Check for any unexpected issues or barriers that may arise.
  8. Review and Adjust: After some time, evaluate the effectiveness of the solution. Did it solve the problem as intended? If not, make adjustments or consider alternative solutions.
  9. Learn from the Experience: Reflect on the problem-solving process. What lessons can be learned for future challenges? Document what worked and what didn’t.

Problem-solving can be applied to a wide range of contexts, including:

  • Business: Addressing operational issues, optimizing processes, and developing new products or services.
  • Education: Solving academic problems, improving teaching methods, and helping students overcome learning challenges.
  • Healthcare: Diagnosing medical conditions, developing treatment plans, and improving patient care processes.
  • Personal Life: Managing daily life challenges, making decisions, and resolving conflicts in relationships.
  • Engineering: Designing and building complex systems, troubleshooting technical problems, and improving product designs.

Successful problem-solving often requires critical thinking, creativity, collaboration, and adaptability. It’s important to approach problems with an open mind and a willingness to learn from both successes and failures. Continuous improvement in problem-solving skills is essential for personal and professional growth.

Problem Solving Frameworks

Problem Solving frameworks care a collection of models (methodologies and techniques) designed to systematically address and resolve business challenges. This category is centered on the fundamental idea that, to effectively solve a problem, you need to break it down into manageable parts, analyze its root causes, and implement solutions that are based on data and evidence rather than intuition or guesswork.

Benefits of Problem Solving Frameworks

  • Systematic Approach: Problem-solving frameworks provide a structured, step-by-step process to approach complex issues. This systematic approach ensures that no critical aspects are overlooked.
  • Efficiency: By following a well-defined problem-solving process, organizations can save time and resources that might otherwise be wasted on trial-and-error approaches.
  • Data-Driven Decision-Making: These frameworks emphasize the importance of collecting and analyzing relevant data. This data-driven approach helps in making informed decisions and identifying the most effective solutions.
  • Clarity and Focus: Problem-solving frameworks help teams clarify the problem’s scope, define objectives, and maintain a clear focus on addressing the root causes rather than superficial symptoms.
  • Collaboration: They encourage collaboration among team members by providing a common structure for problem-solving discussions and ensuring that everyone is on the same page.
  • Consistency: Consistent use of problem-solving frameworks ensures that similar problems are approached in a uniform manner, making it easier to learn from past experiences.

Thinking behind the Models

  • Identifying the Root Cause: Instead of simply addressing symptoms, these frameworks emphasize the importance of digging deeper to find the underlying root causes of a problem. This prevents recurring issues.
  • Data Collection and Analysis: Effective problem-solving relies on data and evidence. Frameworks encourage organizations to gather relevant data, analyze it, and draw conclusions based on facts.
  • Structured Approach: Problems can often feel overwhelming. Problem-solving frameworks provide structure by breaking the problem into smaller, manageable steps, making it less intimidating.
  • Iterative Process: Many problem-solving frameworks involve iterative processes, where solutions are tested, evaluated, and refined. This iterative approach allows for continuous improvement.
  • Cross-Functional Collaboration: Recognizing that complex problems often require input from various departments or individuals, these frameworks promote collaboration and diverse perspectives.


  • The Five Whys: Repeatedly asking “Why?” to uncover the root causes of a problem.
  • Fishbone Diagram (Ishikawa or Cause-and-Effect Diagram): Visualizes the potential causes of a problem, categorizing them into branches.
  • 8D Problem Solving: An eight-step method for addressing complex problems, often used in manufacturing and quality control.
  • DMAIC (Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve, Control): A structured approach within Six Sigma for process improvement.
  • TRIZ (Theory of Inventive Problem Solving): A methodology for solving engineering and innovation-related problems.
  • A3 Problem Solving: A one-page problem-solving tool that provides a structured format for defining and addressing issues.
  • Mind Mapping: A visual representation technique for brainstorming and organizing ideas related to a problem.
  • SWOT Analysis: Evaluates a problem by assessing internal Strengths and Weaknesses and external Opportunities and Threats.
  • Pareto Analysis: Identifies and prioritizes the most significant factors contributing to a problem, based on the 80/20 principle.
  • Root Cause Analysis: A generic term for various techniques focused on identifying the underlying causes of issues, such as the 5 Whys and Fishbone Diagrams.
  • McKinsey 7-S:  A management framework used to assess and improve organizational effectiveness and performance.